Sunday, May 24, 2020
INTRODUCTION In this paper, we are Write an Expository Essay on the causes of confusion in using Google maps or in using a GPS. The Global Positioning System was brought about by the US branch of Defense to give an exact estimation of position and speed of ground, ocean, air and space objects. It turned out to be completely operational in the 80 s, yet with a restricted exactness for regular citizen utilizes (using a cryptographic method named SA for Selective Availability, prompting precision levels in situating estimation of about one hundred meters). In May 2000, the SA highlight was killed, and from that point forward, each standard GPS beneficiary gives exact situating with a mean blunder of under 10 meters. The Russian framework named GLONASS covers just the Russian domain and Galileo, the European context ought to be accessible in 2014 (Keita) . Fig 1.1 The GPS receiver thinks about the time a flag was transmitted by a satellite with the time it was gotten. The time distinction tells the GPS collector how far away the satellite is. With separation estimations from a couple of more satellites, the receiver can decide the user s position and show it on the unit s electronic map. The utilization of GPS is vital when edit zone is evaluated through geographic testing. It likewise permits geo-referencing the families from the populace statistics and connecting them to satellite pictures of land use (Doshi). This link allows utilizing the family units as an aceShow MoreRelatedThe Internet And Global Positioning System1555 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHumans throughout the ages have used maps to help them travel. As we enter the modern age, maps on the internet and global positioning system(GPS) have become a more efficient way to travel because it allows users to get a step by step instruction on how to get to their destination. In 2004, Google debuted Google Maps, a service that that disrupt the GPS device industry and has paved the way for future navigation and GPS related apps. The success of Google Maps was primarily based on the advancesRead MoreChapter 7 E commerce758 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagestogether. Some stay because they felt the urge to contribute to the cause; others come because they can benefit from being part of the community. In communities identity are easily forged. QUESTION 2. Identify a product that could be promoted using a social networking site such as Facebook. Explain why your chosen product would be a good candidate for a social networking-based promotion strategy. Amazon products such as electronics and wears are definitely liable products for promotion on SocialRead MoreUsing The Personal Task Management Software On Computers And / Or Smartphones1470 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdownloaded and installed on a smartphone. Similar to a personal computer there exists a wide selection of proprietary and open source mobile operating system platforms, out of these smartphone operating systems, the most prominent ones being Apples iOS, Googles Android, Symbian from Symbian foundation, RIM blackberry OS and Windows mobile from Microsoft . This project focuses on developing a mobile application, Locale Reminder for GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s Android operating system. Majority of smartphone manufacturersRead MoreDevelop Android City Tour Guide Application Using Web Services1300 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDevelop Android City Tour Guide Application Using Web Services Karan Shivankar, Devesmita shill, shital pofare Abstract:-combination of good phone and web services is the trend of longer term software application. Mobile phones are more than just making calls. Now a day mobile phone is a necessary part of the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s life. There is continuously rising in a number of mobile Computing applications, centred on the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s daily life. It allows accessing. It allows accessing several applicationsRead MoreHow the Mobile Paradigm May Affect the Nature and Limits of Privacy1471 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesprevent consequence occur. GPS GPS  stand for Global Positing System is a space-based satellite navigation system that allows user track their location and time information in all weather conditions in anywhere. GPS receivers have integrated with phone, car, watch etc. to improve our daily quality. In Hong Kong, there have many intricate road designs, this technology help user find the best path by generating a route that navigate user to the destination on the map. With the mobile phone technologyRead MoreTechnology Of The Twentieth Century1233 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagestechnology of the twentieth century has managed to intrigue just about everyone. While there are many benefits that technology has to offer, the world doesn t know how to live without it anymore. People find themselves lost without their Iphone, Gps, or Google to answer their questions. Being in constant communication with someone has become an everyday routine for us. Whether its texting, snapchatting, emailing, or constantly picking up the phone, odds are that you re talking to someone via electronicsRead MoreGoogle s Car : The Revolutionary Next Step1706 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGoogle s Car In a project that have started a long ago, Google thought that driverless car is the revolutionary next step. Inside of the whole idea of those kind of car there are a lot of information and developing that have been happen. According to Google, the main idea was and still is make everything safer, and their focus is develop a product 100% safe. When they say safe, they are not talking just about the passenger on the car but for all population. After developing a software that isRead MoreMobile Application For School Information Essay3593 Words Ã |Ã 15 Pagesthere and how the school performs during the national examinations. . The application utilises Google maps in its endeavour to give easy access to information as well as an estimate of real time tracking using GPS found on mobile devices to allow for commuters to track their progress while on their commute and cell phone triangulation in cases where GPS isn t turned on. The application will be written using Java which is a simultaneous, object-oriented language which is normally class based. It isRead MoreDescription Of The Vehicle Tracking System2103 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagessystem is very useful in tracking and management for fleet. It is the technology used to determine the location of a vehicle using different methods like GPS and other navigation systems operating which uses satellites and ground based stations. Modern vehicle tracking systems use GPS technology to locate and keep monitoring our vehicle anywhere on earth, but sometimes using different types of automatic vehicle location technology are still another option. The vehicle tracking system is fixed insideRead MoreDevelop Android City Tour Guide Application Using Web Services1041 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSurvey paper on Develop Android City Tour Guide Application Using Web Services Karan Shivankar firstname.lastname@example.org Devesmita Shil email@example.com Shital Pofare firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract:-combination of good phone and web services is the trend of longer term software application. Mobile phones are more than just making calls. Now a day mobile phone is a necessary part of the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s life. There is continuously rising
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
According to the Cancer Facts and Figures 2014 by the American Cancer Society, an estimated number of 232,670 women in the United States will be diagnosed with breast cancer, and about 2,360 new cases are expected in men. Breast cancer will possibly cause death to more than 40,000 female patients and 400 male patients in 2014. Excluding skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common cancer that American women are diagnosed with. Additionally, breast cancer ranks second in the most deadly cancers among women today, just after lung cancer. Breast cancer is any cancer that starts from the breast tissues. It refers to the formation of malignant tumor in or around the area of the breast, and this tumor can travel to new parts of the body such as bond, central nervous system, or liver. Based on its histological appearance, breast cancer can be divided into many subtypes, which are infiltrating or invasive ductal carcinoma (the most common type of breast cancer), medullary carcinoma, ductal carcinoma in situ, or tubular carcinoma, etc. Every subtype of breast cancer might target a specific group of patients and response to some unique treatments. What is Triple-Negative Breast Cancer? Today, breast cancer can no longer be seen as one disease but rather a group of diseases. Histological appearance is not the only criteria to classify breast cancer. Biologists and doctors nowadays look at the expression of receptors and gene that promote the growth of cancerous cells to defineShow MoreRelatedTaking a Look at Breast Cancer1758 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntroduction Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death among females in the world. It is known for Ã¢â¬Å"have both a genetic and non-genetic etiologyÃ¢â¬ (Milne et al., 2010). It involves a combination of several factors- such as Ã¢â¬Å"genetic, environmental and behavioral risk factorsÃ¢â¬ - that are unique to each individual (Nickels et al., 2013). This type of cancer is represented by a malignant tumor manifested in breast cells such as the line duct and line lobules cells, just to name a fewRead MoreTaking a Look at Breast Cancer955 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBreast cancer is the second leading cause of death in women in the United States, after lung cancer. Every year, millions of women over the age of 40 go in for a routine mammogram to help prevent terminal breast cancer by early prognosis. While some very fortunate women will never actually be diagnosed with this cancer, they still undergo this medical test routinely. However, for every eight women there is one th at will be diagnosed with some form of breast cancer in their life. It seems as thoughRead MoreTaking a Look at Breast Cancer1052 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesNearly one in eight women in the United States will develop breast cancer at some point in her or his life (Breast Cancer Health Center, 2014). I am sure that almost everyone has been affected by breast cancer in one way or another, whether they had it or know someone who has had it. My momÃ¢â¬â¢s aunt had breast cancer, as did my dadÃ¢â¬â¢s mother. My great-aunt luckily caught it early on and had it taken care of. Unfortunately, my grandmother caught it too late; it had spread all over her body and eventuallyRead MoreTaking a Look at Breast Cancer718 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesasked her sister what was wrong. Elaine tried to ignore it and changed the subject. But Tina was worried and took her to the emergency room where the E.R. doctor diagnosed her with Stage 4 breast cancer. Since Elaine rarely went to doctors or got any check ups, she suffered from a late detection of breast cancer due to her fear of doctors. While visiting my family in New York for winter vacation 2011, I noticed that ElaineÃ¢â¬â¢s weight was dropping and her clothes were not as secure as they once were.Read MoreTaking a Look for Breast Cancer1083 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdiagnose for breast cancer is a regular self-check for changes in the chest or breast area. On finding a lump or cyst under the skin, it is ideal to visit a GP for confirmation although; most lumps or cysts are normal or non-cancerous. On confirmation of the presence of breast cancer, a patient would be further examined to find out the stage of cancer and what treatments would be ideal for them. This further testing includes a variety of techniques used to scan a suspected breast cancer such as MammogramRead MoreBreast Cancer : A Serious Condition1553 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDestiny Myers BBH 411W.004 Prof. Gyekis 2/18/16 Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a serious condition and takes many people s lives each and every year. It accounts for at least 18.2% of cancer deaths worldwide.1 In society today, women are more focused on what appeals to men, rather than worrying about their own health. Ã¢â¬Å"If only women paid as much attention to their breast as men doÃ¢â¬ is promoted by National Breast Cancer Foundation. 2 The message that I took from this PSA is the notion that womenRead MoreBreast Cancer; Saving the Girls 959 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBreast cancer is the second most prominent cause of cancer deaths in women. About 1 in 8 American women living in the U.S. will be diagnosed with invasive breast cancer sometime during the course of their life. About 39,620 of those women will die from it. Ã¢â¬Å"Breast cancer occurs when cells in the breast divide and grow without their normal controlÃ¢â¬ (Komen). There are two main types of breast cancer. Ductal carcinoma, the most common type which starts in the tubes that transport milk from the breastRead MoreBreast Cancer Prevention and Education Essay1695 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAccording to the American Cancer Society, Ã¢â¬Å"Breast cancer is the common disease of women in the United States, other than skin cancer.Ã¢â¬ After lung cancer, it is the leading secondary cause of cancer death in women. It helps to have some basic facts about the normal makeup of the breasts to understand breast cancer. In the past, this disease was one of the most feared forms of cancer due to its fatality rate and because complete recovery often required breast removal. The best way to fight this diseaseRead MoreThe Significance Of Breast Cancer1022 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Importance of Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a serious disease that takes place in the cells of the breast. It is detected in many things, such as finding a lump or a change in how the breast looks. It is important to know how breast cancer works and the many parts that contribute to the knowledge of the disease. Famous actress Angelina Jolie brought breast cancer into the spotlight when she decided to get a double mastectomy. In the article Ã¢â¬Å"The Angelina EffectÃ¢â¬ that came from Times magazineRead MoreBreast Cancer That Develops From Breast Tissue Essay1049 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBreast cancer that develops from breast tissue. Signs of breast cancer may include a lump in the breast, a change in breast shape, dimpling of the skin, fluid coming from the nipple, or a red scaly patch of skin. In those with distant spread of the disease, there may be bone pain, swollen lymph nodes, shortness of breath, or yellow skin. Risk factors for developing breast cancer include: female sex, obesity, lack of physical exercise, drinking alcohol, hormone replacement therapy during menopause
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
This paper will trace in general the different views on love as expressed by the different speakers in PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Symposium and explore in detail the theories of Eros, Philia, Storge and Agape and the bearing it has on the notions of erotic love, filial love, sacrificial love and spiritual love. Another area that will be drawn into focus is the theory of Ã¢â¬Å"platonic loveÃ¢â¬ based on PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s hypothesis. The context of the symposium is a get-together of the students of Socrates who get to talking and decide to take turns and speak in praise of Eros, the God of Love. We will write a custom essay sample on Love in the Western World or any similar topic only for you Order Now Of the speakers Phaedrus speaks first and talks about the virtuosity Eros promotes in those who experience love. He talks about the awareness that true love can inspire in humans so that man becomes conscious of the noble qualities of honor, loyalty, courage and fidelity. Pausanius is the next to speak and dwells on the different kinds of love, from the common banal love to the higher, spiritual kind of love. The earthy love is not as noble as the intellectual love which is more faithful and elevates the mind and is completely devoid of desire. According to him the pursuit of higher knowledge and wisdom is the more honorable and the wantonness of physical love is shameful. Eryximachus talks about the concept of good love that helps man to be judicious and methodical. Eryximachus is a doctor and philosopher and talks about love beyond relationships, about intellectualism, the love of ideas, concepts and the fine arts like music. He speaks of the advantages love brings to humans, the most important being the ability to discern between honor and dishonor. He believes that there are opposing kinds of loves in every living being including animals and plants. However, true love is achieved through a synthesis of these opposing elements and that it can be the fountain and source of power, friendship and happiness (PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Symposium). Aristophanes, the jester and humorist came up with the concept of love as man in search of his soul mate and partner in order to feel one complete whole. He talks about man being split into half by Zeus for threatening to over run the Gods. Later Zeus modified his terrible act and allowed the two halves to marry as man and woman. It is said that ever since the two halves have been in search of the other. Socrates himself speaks last of all and talks of love as being the human desire for knowledge, wisdom and beauty. Love is the desire for what is beautiful and may not necessarily mean beauty in itself. According to Socrates love is the mere interface between what he desires and the object of his desire. When man has achieved real love he will be able to create beauty, conceptualize perfection and become wise and virtuous. In Greek mythology Eros is one of the three oldest Gods along with Cronos and Chaos and stands for love. The word Ã¢â¬ËeroticÃ¢â¬â¢ is derived from the God of love, Eros, who encourages and endorses all those who seek him to perform acts of virtue and merit. As has been mentioned before, all those present at the party or symposium have laid down their postulates and have spoken about different kinds of love and what it does for man. To further explore the concept of the various kinds of love let us consider the broad definition of these categories: Agape, Storge, Philia and Eros. Agape stands for spiritual love, the kind of love God has for his creatures and the love man strives to return. This kind of love transcends physical boundaries and is a higher form of love which finds fulfillment in just being there. It kindles spirituality and is perfection itself. Nothing can tarnish this kind of love and to most mortals seems almost impossible to attain. We can find examples of this kind of love in Christianity. In literature, I have found this kind of love being depicted in certain kinds of love lyrics that belong to the Renaissance age. In PetrarchÃ¢â¬â¢s poetry for instance, the poetÃ¢â¬â¢s object of desire, the enigmatic Laura, is continually shown as someone unreachable. LauraÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes are compared to stars; her face is often described as being so radiant as to make looking at her impossible. This imagery often ties up with how the apprehension of God is described in Christianity. Here, the conflict between Eros and Agape is continually present. The poet often feels helplessly tied between the demands of the earthier, physical Eros and the spiritual, the allegedly purer kind of Agape (Houston). Storge is synonymous with love that engenders sacrifice and purity. This is the kind of love parents feel for their children. This kind of love does not wait for reciprocity to grow and is there notwithstanding. The story of Abraham and Isaac is an interesting biblical instance of these two kinds of love where Storge is compelled to be sacrificed for the greater Agape. In order to prove the full extent of his Agape, his total devotion to God, Abraham is asked to sacrifice the thing he loves most. This happens to be AbrahamÃ¢â¬â¢s son Isaac, the person for who he feels the greatest Storge. In the biblical context, Agape is undeniably higher than Storge. Abraham is therefore first made to prove the full extent of his Agape before God relents and lets him keep the object of his Storge. Other instances of pronounced Storge in literature include the love Cordelia feels for her father, King Lear in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s play. In this case however the Storge is made to complete its sacrifice in a sense because both the kingÃ¢â¬â¢s beloved daughter and the king himself die in the end. Philia, or brotherly love, exists between friends, brothers and neighbors. This kind of love helps people to bond closely without being passionate or amorous. This kind of love prompts the feeling of camaraderie and brotherhood. A good example at hand would be the kind of love soldiers have amongst each other, where they bond intimately and share their joys and sorrows together without a hint of any physical attraction or manifestations. In Greek history, I have noticed the love depicted in the story of Damon and Pythias to be of this form. In the legend Damon and Pythias both survive DionysusÃ¢â¬â¢ wrath because of their intense love for each other. But in another tale from the bible, the ending is not nearly as fortunate. Cain and Abel, sons of Adam and Eve, at first loved each other in the truest sense of Philia. However, with the preference God showed for AbelÃ¢â¬â¢s sacrifice of animals over CainÃ¢â¬â¢s agricultural offerings, CainÃ¢â¬â¢s love turns to intense jealousy and he ends up killing Abel. This is possibly the best known example of Philia getting overturned. Eros is passionate love, which can in most cases be closely linked to physical attraction and sexual love. Eros is often closely associated with the animal kingdom and therefore classically considered to be a lower form. Eros can often contend with Agape as we have seen earlier. And a popular example of this is in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Romeo and Juliet. The love that the two young nobles feel for each other is no doubt arising from a certain attraction, or Eros. And yet the manner in which they express their love for each other in a language that is similar to that of Agape. Romeo and Juliet address each other in abject terms, making it a love not of equals but of one subservient to the other. This of course is one of the most common features of Agape. Although classically Eros is considered to be a lower form than Agape, as we have seen discussed in the Symposium, I personally feel this is not entirely fair. It is true that people often consider it nobler to love a person without wanting to possess him or her in a physical or earthly way. By implication this means that a person loves someone for more than their physicality, that is to say a love founded on something deeper than superficial beauty. This is true in theory, but not always in practice. We often find that the Agape is more often than not directed towards someone of higher social standing, or towards a woman who is unreachable, like a noblewoman or even the queen. This amounts to nothing short of sycophancy sometimes. Is it then less hypocritical than loving someone for their appearance? Eros is also equated with the animal kingdom and is therefore considered Ã¢â¬Å"lower. Ã¢â¬ But why should something, that takes place in the natural world, be considered lower? If animals love each other erotically, does it not make it a more natural, or even a Ã¢â¬Å"higherÃ¢â¬ love? After all this kind of love is based on the truth of the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s responses to the beloved; if someone is beautiful and attractive physically, why should it be wrong to feel attraction or love for this person? Even if it is based only on appearances, Eros is more genuine. There is no verbal intrusion that allows lovers to lie to each other or praise each other in hollow terms. Philia too I think is often under-rated in the present generation. Friends can often feel a lot of love between them without it being the Erotic or even the Agape type of love. We have been brainwashed by popular movies and books into always expecting friendships to turn into love as that fits in with the perfect happy ending of the plot. But why should this be? Why is simple, platonic love that expects nothing physical or romantic in return be less of a love than any other kind? After all, is it not nobler for two friends to love each other in spite of the fact that they have nothing physical or romantic to gain from each other? Storge also is often under-appreciated in popular culture. Love that exists within families has become such a rare instance in the days of divorce and estrangement that perhaps more of art needs to depict it now, more than ever. People seem to forget that our families are what we are born into. We carry our parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ genes and share them with our siblings and nothing or no one else can ever change that. It is true that we are often unfortunate in this regard and there are many children brought into this world in an unloving family, but even so the love that exists between members of the family is something that precedes life itself. Just to think about what a pregnant mother endures for nine months and so many years following the birth, is enough to prove the argument. In conclusion, I think it is fruitless to spend hours debating on which form of love is higher than the others because each kind of love, whether borne out of devotion, lust, filial ties or friendship, is a distinct kind of love. A sort of love that is unique to itself and therefore deserving of special attention. Instead of trying to compare them it is perhaps best to be grateful to know that they all exist. How to cite Love in the Western World, Papers
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss About The Operation And Activities The Organization? Answer: Introduction The report presents a brief overview of the human resource management. It explains the significance and objects of HRM in an organization. It explains the various key functions of human resource department. It tells that how human resource key functions affect the business operation and activities of the organization. It explains that how human resource department plays a significant role to achieve organizational goals and objectives of the company. The report also explains the David Ulrich HR model and importance of this model in HRD. It describes the effective strategies of this department in order to accomplish long term goals and objectives of the company. Human resource management Human resource management is the management of human resources. It is created and designed by the human resource department to maximize the worker's performance and efficiency. This department maintains the relationship between employees and managers. The responsibilities of this department are divided into three major areas such as staffing, designing and defining the work and compensation and benefits. An organization cannot survive its business without effective and sustainable human resource department. This department plays a significant role in every organization. It formulates and implements rules and regulations for the success and growth of the company. HR appoints potential and competent employees in the organization. The company can achieve the organizational goals and objectives with the sustainable and effective human resource management. Sustainability plays a vital role in this department. The main objective of the human resource department is to maintain the good rela tions in the organization by the evaluation and analyze the policies, programs, and procedures in order to achieve the organizational goals and objectives (Kaufman, 2012). The significant of human resource management Human resource management plays a significant role in an organization. The good human resource department helps to attract and retain the potential employees in the organization. It develops the mandatory skills, rights, and attitudes among the employees through performance appraisal, training, and development. This department maintains cooperation and coordination among the workers through participation and motivation (Alfes, Shantz Truss, 2012). Effective utilization of resources can be possible by the effective human resource department and it eliminates and removes the waste of human resources. It promotes team spirit and team work among the employees. It provides favorable incentive and remuneration to talented and potential employees. It provides job satisfaction to employees (Singh, Darwish, Costa Anderson, 2012). Functions of human resource management Human resource management is considered as a management function because it hires, motivates, and maintains labor force in the organization. It deals with various issues (hiring, compensation, training, development, communication, motivation and administration) which are faced by the employees. HR managers ensure the satisfaction of workers in order to meet the organizational goals and objectives (Arulrajah, Opatha Nawaratne, 2016). The function of human resource management has been divided into three categories such as: 1) Managerial function: The managerial functions of HRM are discussed below. It is the core function of HRM. It needs to plan to the human resources who are needed to achieve the organizational goals and objectives. This department researches the various people and collect the information about them. In this way, HRM appoints a right candidate for the employment in the company. Human resource management identifies and analyzes current and future human resources to in order to meet mission and vision of the company (Paauwe, 2009). Organizing: In an association in which tasks and responsibilities are distributed among its individuals then HRM organizes all the activities and maintains coordination among the employees. Hence, HRM builds and establishes the relationship among the workers. Directing: The human resource department provides proper direction and motivation to employees for doing work effectively. It is the important function of HRD. It maximizes the potentials and capabilities of employees through direction, command, and motivation. Controlling: After planning, organizing and directing, the last function is to measure and evaluate the actual performance of employees (Thompson, 2011). 2) Operative functions: The operative functions of HRM are discussed below. Job analysis and design: Job analysis and job design is the major function of HRM. Job analysis the process of describing and explaining the nature of the job for the achievement of goals and objectives. Job design is the process of designing and organizing the duties, tasks, and responsibilities for the accomplishment of certain objectives. Recruitment and selection: Recruitment and selection are another core function of HRD. In this function, the Human resource management selects the talented and potential employees for performing the duties and tasks. Performance appraisal: The HRM performs this function to ensure and measure the performance of workers. This function plays a significant role in HRM. Training and development: It is very important and foremost function of HRM. Training and development provide the skills and knowledge to workers to perform their task and jobs effectively. This department conducts training and development programs for employees in the organization (Cascio, 2015). Salary and wages administration: HRM determines and decides the salary and wages of the workers. Further, remuneration, incentives, fringe benefits, bonuses, and compensation are also decided by the human resource department. Employee welfare: This department also provides the job satisfaction to the employees. It provides various kinds of services and benefits to employees. Maintenance: After the various researches, it has been found that human resource management is the asset of the company. The employee turnover is not considered good for the company. Therefore, HRM always tries to retain the employees and HR executive also tries to reduce the employee turnover within the organization. HRM always focuses on the performance of employees (Al-Refaie, 2015). Labor relations: The human resource management maintains good labor relation in the organization. HR executives always try to maintain good relations with a representative of a trade Personal research: The personal researches are being conducted by the human resource department in the organization. The HRM takes employees opinions and views on salaries, wages, working conditions, and promotions. Such researchers provide help to HRM for understanding the employee turnover, employee satisfaction, and employee termination. Personal record: This function involves maintaining, recording, retrieving and keeping the worker's related information like employment history, applications forms, employee turnover, working conditions, and employees absents and presents and other data which is related to 3) Advisory function: The advisory function plays a significant role in an organization. The advisory functions of human resource management are discussed below. Advisory to top management: The human resource managers provide advice and suggestions to top management and senior managers in order to evaluate and formulate the personnel programs, procedures and policies of the company. Advice to top management: The Human resource management provides suggestion and advice to departmental heads. In this way, it plays a significant role in every organization. It provides advice to top management on the various matters like job analysis, manpower planning, job design, recruitment and selection, and performance appraisal. Now it is assumed that various functions are performed by the human resource department in order to meet organizational long term and short term objectives of the company (Minbaeva, Mkel Rabbiosi, 2012). How can HR function contribute to an organization's success The HRM plays a significant role in every organization. It is true that the HR function can influence/manage wider business strategy to assist the organization in formulating and achieving its wider vision and goals. Here, seven strategies are describing to ensure that HR strategies are playing important role in achieving the goals and objectives of the company. The strategies are discussed below (Karatop, Kubat Uygun, 2015). Create and build an effective culture of business: The human resource department creates and builds the effective culture for the business in order to achieve organizational mission and vision of the company. The department decides and maintains the good working environment and culture in the organization. HRM also evaluates and identifies the culture, values, and customs of the people. In this way, it will help to maintain sustainability in the organization and meet the long term as well as short term goals of the company. The HRM should provide the cross cultural training to employees (Harzing, Pudelko Sebastian Reiche, 2016). Use clear job descriptions: In job descriptions and job analysis, HRM plays a significant role in the company. The job description also explains the roles and responsibilities of the employees. Job analysis is measured and evaluated by the human resource management. The HRM clear the job responsibilities of employees to gain the competitive advantages in the market. Job analysis and job description are very important to achieve the goals and objectives of the company (van Geffen, Rul Bondarouk, 2013). Identify and evaluate the right talent of the people: It is the third strategy for the company which evaluates and measures the talent, skills, and potential of the workers. It will also help to attract the more employees in the market. The HRM also influence the business operations and activities of the company. Manage the interview process and procedure: The human resource function also influences the business activities of the company. The human resource management also manages the recruitment and interview process to appoint the potential employees. If the company appoints the multi talented and potential employees then the company can easily achieve organizational goals and objectives. The HR managers ensure the effective interview process (Ehnert, Harry Zink, 2013). Evaluated based on the organizational goals and objectives: The primary core function of the HRM is to evaluate and measure the company goals and objectives of the association. Human resource management evaluates and analyzes the company goals and objectives. Make the best possible decisions: The human resource department emphasizes the organizational goals and objectives of the association. It evaluates the culture and values of the company. Thus, it takes the important decisions for the accomplishment of organizational goals and objectives of the company. The HRM takes important decisions related with recruitment and selection process of the company. It reduces the high employee turnover within the organization (Andreeva Kianto, 2012). Hire quickly: The Human resource management also hires and selects the candidate for doing employment. Through effective recruitment and selection strategy, the company hires the potential and talented employees in order to accomplish goals and objectives of the association. It will help to maintain the good organizational culture of the company (Schalk, Timmerman Van den Heuvel, 2013). Improve the performance of employees: The HRM is very useful for the firms as well as the employees. It helps to achieve the association goals and objectives with a minimum level of cost. The human resource management provides help to the firm for improving the performance and efficiency of workers. Increase the motivation: HRD helps the company to increase the motivation for doing work. It will encourage and increase the motivation and level of satisfaction of workers in order to gain the future benefits in the company (Malik, Butt Choi, 2015). Further, human resource management helps to save a great deal of money in the future. It helps to develop the organizational structures of the company and usually, it takes the overview of the whole business operations and activities. This department helps to improve the productivity and efficiency of workers. It also provides the satisfaction of employees (Shaw, Park Kim, 2013). Human resource department maintains the good position of the company. The HRM measures the growth, efficiency, and profitability of the company to gain success and growth in the future. The HRD evaluates the skills and abilities of new employees. HR managers also ensure that there is a direct foremost link between the procedures, policies, programs, and services. Human resource management also uses the strategic approach to work and employment. The HRM provides the various kinds of training to employees for doing work effectively. Training and development will improve the performance of employees to achieve the long term mission and vision of the company. HR professionals maintain the favorable working environment for the employees. It helps to resolve the various conflicts and grievances of employees in order to meet the corporate goals and objectives. HR managers provide remuneration, incentives, bonus and compensation to potential and talented workers. It will enhance their capabilities and boost the confidence of workers (Marshall, Ashleigh, Baden, Ojiako Guidi, 2015). Therefore, the productivity and performance of employees will be increased by the effective remuneration and compensation system. HRD makes various rules, policies, and procedures for formulating and organizing the business activities of the company. HRM can also provide the safe and secure working environment to employees to gain the competitive advantages in the market. Now it is assumed that HRM is the backbone of the company and it helps to formulate the policies and achieving its long term goals and vision. It has been noted that without human resource management, an organization cannot run the business for long time period and it cannot take competitive benefits in the market. After the various researches, it has been analyzed that every company should maintain effective and sustainable human resource management to increase the revenue and profit of the company (Gomes, Angwin, Peter Mellahi, 2012). HR function act as a strategic partner It is true that HR function act as a strategic partner and it influences the business activities of the company. HRM plays an integral and vital role in every organization. HR professionals use the entity and business strategies to gain the competitive benefits in the market. The success of the Business can be measured easily by the HRM. It creates new ideas, thoughts, and innovation for the development and success of the organization. HR executives easily understand business metrics and skills and abilities of employees which are determined the HRM. It analyzes and evaluates the organizational risk and opportunities to gain the competitive advantages in future. HRM is always focused on the business of the organization and it is the sustainable source to gain competitive advantages (Marchington, Wilkinson, Donnelly Kynighou, 2016). David Ulrich HR model David Ulrich HR model plays a significant role in human resource management. The four key roles include the HR business partner, change management, employee advocate and administration expert. HR business partner: The HR business partner plays a significant role in David Ulrich HR model. This model plays strategic role in this department. HR business partner model creates and builds a good relationship with dedicated internal employees and clients. This model represents the advertiser's human resource services and human resource in the organization. HRBP influences and affects the organization. This model helps to expand and increase the knowledge and skills across the company. It uses the feedback system to take the feedback from internal clients. The various feedbacks help to improve the services and HR procedures of the company. HRBP shares the business objectives and purpose with the internal clients of the company. It also makes important changes in the company (Jos Martnez-Jurado, Moyano-Fuentes Jerez Gmez, 2013). Change agent: It is the second strategic role of human resource management and it plays a significant role in David Ulrich HR model. HR professionals participate in change management and take the responsibilities according to changes in the management. HR maintains the internal communication among the employees to understand the role of HR model (Kalshoven Boon, 2012). Administration expert: The administration expert also plays a transactional role in the HRM. Thus, without any trustable and faithful administration expert, the human resource management cannot play its strategic roles effectively. HRM implements all the rules, legislation, norms, policies, safety rules and strategies. Administration expert introduces the modern HRIS solutions and it helps to eliminate and remove the manual entry of data (Madesis, Ganopoulos, Anagnostis Tsaftaris, 2012). Employee advocate: Employee advocate also plays a significant role in Human resource management. HR professional protect the interest of the employees and provide satisfaction to them. It identifies and evaluates the gap between corporate culture and managerial practice and human resource management. Human resource management conducts and runs the training sessions to improve the skills and competencies of employees. It also improves the experience of employees in the organization. HRM daily resolve the grievances and compliances of the employees (Kaufman, 2015). Now it is concluded that HR model describes the way of human resource in which it is organized by the HR and it also explains the key goals and objectives of the organization. This model defines the key role of human resource professionals and it also explains that how the key roles affect the internal customers and employees of the company. The model also explains the role description and career path in HRM. Therefore, this model is very important in human resource management (Beer, Boselie Brewster, 2015). After the various researches, it has been found that human resource department plays a significant role in every organization. The department performs the variety of task in an organization. It makes various policies, programs and strategies for the company. HRM maintain sustainability in the organization. HRM makes excellent recruitment selection strategy to attract the people. It provides performance appraisals to employees for their excellent performance. It maintains the favorable working environment in the organization (Hejazi, Hosseini Ghamsari, 2008). Conclusion Now it is concluded that human resource management plays a vital role in every organization. The company cannot survive its business without effective HR department. Thus, this department presents in every organization. Every company should maintain an effective and sustainable human resource department in the company. The company should appoint the talented and potential HR persons to perform the task and job effectively. The company should also use the HR model to enhance and increase the capabilities of employees. The company should make effective policies, strategies, and norms to develop the HRM in the organization. Now a days the companies is using effective and sustainable human resource department in the company. Thus, it provides the various kinds of business opportunities to the organization. The sustainable human resource department prevents and reduces the resistance change within the organization (Zanko Dawson, 2012). Recommendations There are some recommendations has been given to develop the sustainable human resource departments. They are discussed below. The company should make excellent policies, norms, strategies, and programs for the company. In this way, the company can develop the excellent and sustainable HRM in the company. HRM should make effective recruitment and selection strategies and procedures to attract and retain the employees in the company. HR professionals should make policies and strategies to reduce the employee turnover in the organization. Human resource management should follow good incentive and compensation system to attract the more employees. It should provide the good working environment to the company and it should provide the health benefits to the employees. HRM should maintain the sustainability in the organization to take more opportunities in the market. They should fix the flexible timing hours to the employees for working in the company. The company should use the effective reward system in the organization. It will motivate the employees for doing work with efficiently and effectively. It will also increase the revenue and productivity of the company. References Alfes, K., Shantz, A. and Truss, C., 2012. The link between perceived HRM practices, performance and well?being: The moderating effect of trust in the employer.Human Resource Management Journal,22(4), pp.409-427. Al-Refaie, A., 2015. Effects of human resource management on hotel performance using structural equation modeling.Computers in Human Behavior,43, pp.293-303. Andreeva, T. and Kianto, A., 2012. Does knowledge management really matter? Linking knowledge management practices, competitiveness and economic performance.Journal of knowledge management,16(4), pp.617-636. Arulrajah, A.A., Opatha, H.H.D.N.P. and Nawaratne, N.N.J., 2016. Green human resource management practices: a review.Sri Lankan Journal of Human Resource Management,5(1). Beer, M., Boselie, P. and Brewster, C., 2015. Back to the future: Implications for the field of HRM of the multistakeholder perspective proposed 30 years ago.Human Resource Management,54(3), pp.427-438. Cascio, W.F., 2015. Strategic HRM: Too important for an insular approach.Human Resource Management,54(3), pp.423-426. Ehnert, I., Harry, W. and Zink, K.J. eds., 2013.Sustainability and human resource management: Developing sustainable business organizations. Springer Science Business Media. Gomes, E., Angwin, D., Peter, E. and Mellahi, K., 2012. HRM issues and outcomes in African mergers and acquisitions: a study of the Nigerian banking sector.The International Journal of Human Resource Management,23(14), pp.2874-2900. Harzing, A.W., Pudelko, M. and Sebastian Reiche, B., 2016. The bridging role of expatriates and inpatriates in knowledge transfer in multinational corporations.Human Resource Management,55(4), pp.679-695. Hejazi, S.R., Hosseini, H.M. and Ghamsari, M.S., 2008. The role of reactants and droplet interfaces on nucleation and growth of ZnO nanorods synthesized by vaporliquidsolid (VLS) mechanism.Journal of Alloys and Compounds,455(1), pp.353-357. Jos Martnez-Jurado, P., Moyano-Fuentes, J. and Jerez Gmez, P., 2013. HR management during lean production adoption.Management decision,51(4), pp.742-760. Kalshoven, K. and Boon, C.T., 2012. Ethical leadership, employee well-being, and helping.Journal of Personnel Psychology. Karatop, B., Kubat, C. and Uygun, ., 2015. Talent management in manufacturing system using fuzzy logic approach.Computers Industrial Engineering,86, pp.127-136. Kaufman, B.E., 2012. Strategic human resource management research in the United States: A failing grade after 30 years?.The Academy of Management Perspectives,26(2), pp.12-36. Kaufman, B.E., 2015. Evolution of strategic HRM as seen through two founding books: a 30th anniversary perspective on development of the field.Human Resource Management,54(3), pp.389-407. Madesis, P., Ganopoulos, I., Anagnostis, A. and Tsaftaris, A., 2012. The application of Bar-HRM (Barcode DNA-High Resolution Melting) analysis for authenticity testing and quantitative detection of bean crops (Leguminosae) without prior DNA purification.Food Control,25(2), pp.576-582. Malik, M.A.R., Butt, A.N. and Choi, J.N., 2015. Rewards and employee creative performance: Moderating effects of creative self?efficacy, reward importance, and locus of control.Journal of Organizational Behavior,36(1), pp.59-74. Marchington, M., Wilkinson, A., Donnelly, R. and Kynighou, A., 2016.Human resource management at work. Kogan Page Publishers. Marshall, A.J., Ashleigh, M.J., Baden, D., Ojiako, U. and Guidi, M.G., 2015. Corporate psychopathy: can search and destroyand hearts and minds military metaphors inspire HRM solutions?.Journal of Business Ethics,128(3), pp.495-504. Minbaeva, D.B., Mkel, K. and Rabbiosi, L., 2012. Linking HRM and knowledge transfer via individual?level mechanisms.Human Resource Management,51(3), pp.387-405. Paauwe, J., 2009. HRM and performance: Achievements, methodological issues and prospects.Journal of Management studies,46(1), pp.129-142. Schalk, R., Timmerman, V. and Van den Heuvel, S., 2013. How strategic considerations influence decision making on e-HRM applications.Human Resource Management Review,23(1), pp.84-92. Shaw, J.D., Park, T.Y. and Kim, E., 2013. A resource?based perspective on human capital losses, HRM investments, and organizational performance.Strategic management journal,34(5), pp.572-589. Singh, S., Darwish, T.K., Costa, A.C. and Anderson, N., 2012. Measuring HRM and organisational performance: concepts, issues, and framework.Management Decision,50(4), pp.651-667. Thompson, P., 2011. The trouble with HRM.Human Resource Management Journal,21(4), pp.355-367. van Geffen, C., Rul, H. and Bondarouk, T., 2013. E-HRM in MNCs: what can be learned from a review of the IS literature?.European journal of international management,7(4), pp.373-392. Zanko, M. and Dawson, P., 2012. Occupational health and safety management in organizations: A review.International Journal of Management Reviews,14(3), pp.328-344.
Thursday, April 2, 2020
Research Proposal Aims The study under consideration aims at discussing the effects of multilingualism on Saudi Arabian children development and understanding of the world around.Advertising We will write a custom proposal sample on Effects of Multilingualism on Saudi Arabian Children specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To be more specific, the paper discloses the multilingualism effects on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour and language development as these two issues are considered to be the main factors that can define the quality of human relations, personal achievements, and further development of a society. The main tasks of the investigation are as follows: To identify the reasons of why the Saudi Arabia community is an appropriate research choice; To define multilingualism as an important factor in the discussion of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour concept; To underline the effects multilingualism may have on children and their educatio nal process; To consider social, ethical, and educational concepts in the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s development process; To use the HymesÃ¢â¬â¢ ethnography of speaking as the main theory to analyse the topic and prove its appropriateness. Background on the Community Saudi Arabia is one of the largest Arab states that can be found in the western part of Asia. It has a good geographical location and an ability to develop successful trade relations with its neighbours as well as with any other country around the whole. The Red Sea is on the West, Yemen is on the South, Kuwait is on the North, and the United Arab Emirates is on the East. Saudi Arabia, as the leading global oil producer and deliver, is a rich country. Still, not all Saudi Arabian people live rich and demonstrate the luxurious style of life. In fact, the World Bank reports that this country has the 10th lowest poverty rate worldwide and continues ranking the highest among other Arabian regions regarding the necessity to minimi se poverty (Ã¢â¬Å"Saudi Arabia has tenth lowest poverty rateÃ¢â¬ , 2013). A considerable part of the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights is violated. Parents try to find out the ways to provide their children with the best educational practices, and care givers are bothered with the questions concerning childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s development and abilities to live in a bilingual society (Habtoor, 2012). Many Saudis are afraid of being westernised because of a fast spread of the English language through their communities and their inabilities to control the impact of the English use on their national identity (Al Haq Oqlah, 1996).Advertising Looking for proposal on languages? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Still, the investigations prove that even the use of English and the necessity to live in a multilingual world do not have a considerable impact on people, but have to be taken into account at the early stages of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s developmen t because children usually undergo numerous impacts from various sides (Mouzan, Salloum, Herbish, Qurachi, Omar, 2008). In spite of all challenges and difficulties, the Saudi Arabian community has to be defined as a powerful nation with an ability to demonstrate the best qualities and get accustomed to all new concepts. Hijazi, Abalkhail, and Seaton (2000) explain how the population in Saudi Arabia with the prosperity from the oil industry has to live, benefit from a rapid social change, and support their traditional lives. This study aims at investigating two types of the Saudi Arabian communities: one community is the children, who live in Saudi Arabia in such cities like Riyadh (the capital of the country, where bilingual communities are of great numbers), Jeddah (the commercial capital of the country, where multilingualism is an ordinary and even obligatory thing), and Dammam (the city with a huge airport, where a variety of languages amazes its population); another community i s the children, who live in the USA as they are the children of parents, who have transferred because of their educational goals and decided to stay, have families, and raise children in a new society. Though these two communities are rooted from Saudi Arabia, the evaluation of their styles of life, adaptation to multilingualism, and childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s development may gain various forms and lead to different results. Children have to develop their skills considering the expectations of both, a society around and a family with its own rules and standards. A life in a multilingual society is not a new thing for them, still, it creates a number of effects and outcomes that influence childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of the world around and development of their cognitive skills and manners.Advertising We will write a custom proposal sample on Effects of Multilingualism on Saudi Arabian Children specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Literatur e Review on Prior Work on the Chosen Area This study will draw on the effects of multilingualism on children, their language development, and behaviour in a society to comprehend whether it is justified to support the idea of a bilingual nation by the representatives of the Saudi Arabian community or not. A number of investigations have been already made in the chosen field of study, and their results have considerably influenced the development of the sphere of education as well as the development of many other spheres of life. Dewaele and Oudenhoven (2009) makes an attempt to investigate the connection between multilingualism and the personality profile taking into consideration such factor like acculturation. They cooperate with 79 teenagers from London, some of them were born in this city and some of them came from different countries. The researchers prove that language dominance plays an important role in the personalityÃ¢â¬â¢s profile, this is why the effects of multilingua lism on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s development cannot be ignored (Diamond, 2010). Dewaele and Oudenhoven (2009) conclude that in spite of the fact that people are usually shaped by some social and biographical factors, their contact with different languages and cultures strengthen their perception of the world. Language is considered to be one of the key links between social and cognitive worlds of a child (Bialystok, 2007). As a rule, language has certain consequences on a person, especially in children between 4 and 16 years, as this age is the period when children are able to comprehend what is expected from them, what they can do, and what they can, have, and want to learn.Advertising Looking for proposal on languages? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The decision to choose the Saudi Arabian community as the main group of people for investigation is based on the work of Al-Ghamdi (2015), who introduces the importance of heritage language and explains that the life and development in a multilingual society are not easy things that due to a number of negative stereotypes that can lead to a cultural identity clash and the necessity to consider a dual cultural identity during the language development process. Unfortunately, multilingualism may be characterised by certain negative and positive effects on children of different age and their development. For example, DÃ ¶pke (2006) identifies a number of difficulties with language development may take place, but it is wrong to believe that bilingualism is the main reason of language disorders. She truly believes that childÃ¢â¬â¢s age, personal inabilities, or even some other outside factors like parental neglect and maltreatment may cause negative effects. At the same time, DÃ ¶pke (2006) tells that her studies help to understand the cognitive advantages of bilingualism and the inabilities of a multilingual society influence the results of IQ tests of an individual. Multilingualism should not be defined as a pure negative or a pure positive factor in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s development (Grosjean, 2010), but try to understand possible problems and identify the necessary solutions on how children should be developed in a multilingual society. Luke (2003) offers to pay attention to a number of social, demographic, linguistic, and even economic factors to comprehend how children may be developed in multilingual societies. Though it is not always possible to consider all the above-mentioned points, one conclusion can be made on the basis of Al-AmriÃ¢â¬â¢s paper (2013) Ã¢â¬â the effects of multilingualism on personality may be of a negative or positive nature, and people can do nothing with this truth but to accept it as it is. Theoretical Positioning One of the poss ible methods to comprehend the nature of multilingualism and its effects is to use a powerful theory and apply it to a situation. Current study focuses on the HymesÃ¢â¬â¢ ethnography of speaking as a chance to focus on communicative behaviour as a part of a cultural system due to its ability to cooperate with other components of the same system regarding their particular concepts (Saville-Troike, 2008). As a rule, HymesÃ¢â¬â¢s speaking model is currently used in various investigations as it helps to comprehend the ways of how the process of communication may differ in various cultural situations (Milburn, n.d., Applying S.P.E.A.K.I.N.G.). The peculiar feature of the chosen theory is the possibility to use its components to learn what to do in a particular situation, how to behave in a new community, and look at the situations in regards to the expectations from a speaking process (Milburn, n.d., Theoretical overview). Though not all researchers believe that HymesÃ¢â¬â¢ approac h is the only successful decision to comprehend language development and speaking peculiarities (Blommaert, 2009) defining the weakness of his research because of his decision to rely on his personal experience and background knowledge only, the effectiveness of his theory and model remains to be unchangeable. Being a strong framework for the analysis of the effects of multilingualism on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour and language development, the HymesÃ¢â¬â¢ theory should be properly analysed with all its components and their important functions. The HymesÃ¢â¬â¢ speaking model consists of the eight main divisions, which introduce the chosen acronym SPEAKING. S setting describes the situation in regards to its time and space; P participants as well as their roles are identified; E ends define the main goals of the process; A act sequence shows the required order of the process; K keys are focused on the manner of the process; I instrumentalities talk about the way the process is o rganised and the language that is used; N norms of interaction create the rules according to which the process of communication should be organised; G genres conclude the type of speech used in the process. (Atkinson, Delamont, Coffey, Lofland, Lofland, 2007,p. 290) The identification of each of the components will be used in the analysis of the multilingualismÃ¢â¬â¢s effects on children between 4-16 years from the Saudi Arabian communities. One part of the participants lives in the Saudi Arabia and experiences their own culture, its effects, and historical importance. Another part of the participants lives in the USA and has to consider their own cultural norms in regards to the social expectations. A certain attention to such aspects like the setting, ends, and even the norms of interaction turns out to be a good chance to learn better the peculiarities of multilingualism and its direct and indirect effects on children, their language development, and even behaviour within the chosen community. In fact, the relations between ethnography and multilingualism have a long history, and nowadays, they have been considerably improved and transformed because of the epistemological shift and the intense changes in linguistic, social, and cultural aspects (Gardner Martin-Jones, 2012). Blommaert, Collins, and Slembrouck (2005) underline the importance of spaces in multilingualism, and space is one of the main components in the chosen theoretical model. This observation proves again that the chosen theoretical position is appropriate for the project and can be applied in a variety of ways to realise how 4-16-year-old children may be challenged by multilingualism and overcome the problems with their language development and behavioural difficulties in a society. Research Questions The study under consideration has to give the answers to several research questions as it focuses on several aspects such as childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s language development, behaviour, the impact o f a community, and the necessity to live in a multilingual society. This is why the list of the following research questions seems to be rational indeed. It is not enough to give some concrete answers to the research questions. It is more important to understand why these questions take place, how past studies may be implied to the current investigation, and explain that each question has its own backgrounds. These research questions help to find appropriate solutions to the problems children may face because of multilingualism in their communities. What are the effects of multilingualism on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s language development and behaviour in a Saudi Arabian community? How should the HymesÃ¢â¬â¢ theory of ethnography of speaking be used in the analysis of the effects of multilingualism? To answer these two simple questions, the following issues have to be taken into consideration as well as additional supportive steps in research: The chosen communityÃ¢â¬â¢s development i n a modern world; The factors influence children language development; ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour in a multilingual society; The HymesÃ¢â¬â¢ theory of ethnography of speaking (Kiesling, 2012) helps to comprehend the essence of multilingualism and its connection to the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s development; The elements of the HymesÃ¢â¬â¢ theory (Ã¢â¬Å"Dell HymesÃ¢â¬â¢s speaking modelÃ¢â¬ , n.d.) have to be considered during the analysis of the effects of multilingualism on children; The effects of multilingualism on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s language development and behaviour in a society; The problems caused by the effects of multilingualism on children; The solutions to the problems identified with the help of the HymesÃ¢â¬â¢ theory in speaking and children development. Methodology The main hypothesis of the study under analysis is the identification and analysis of the effects of multilingualism on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s language development and behaviour in a society and the solutions o f the problems that may take place as soon as the effects are clarified on the basis of the HymesÃ¢â¬â¢ theory of ethnography of speaking. The research questions mentioned in the previous section create the necessity to choose several methods for research because it is not enough to review literature or to interview people. It is crucial to integrate different methods and study a population from a variety of perspectives, but try to avoid large-scale quantitative methods as they are not actually appropriate for the chosen theoretical positioning. At the same time, the chosen methods provide the information within the frames of which the validity of a study will be judged (Kallet, 2004). There should be two main study areas: the Saudi Arabian community in the USA and the community, the members of which live in Saudi Arabia and face the challenges of a bilingual society. It is not enough to use many children; still, it is necessary to use the children with different social backgroun ds. 20-30 children between 4-16 years will be interviewed, and their answers will be analysed on the basis of the HymesÃ¢â¬â¢ theory of ethnography of speaking (Hymes, 2013). The analysis of data will be properly organised, noted, and integrated with the statistical data and other literary material found online and in the libraries. There is no necessity to use large-scaled investigations, but focus on several communities defined by the required age group (children between 4 and 16 years). The analysis of the HymesÃ¢â¬â¢ theory and its role in the process of speaking (Johnstone Marcellino, 2010) should be incorporated with the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s development and the conditions the Saudi Arabian communities have to live under. The methods chosen for the project about the effects of multilingualism are as follows: Interviews with children between 4-16 years from two different communities (those, who live in the Saudi Arabia and those, who come from the Saudi Arabia and live in the USA). Some of the interviews may be organised online to save time and money that are necessary for travelling. Interviews with parents of the children mentioned above to check the validity of the information given. The observations of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour in different situations which are caused by the necessity to consider multilingualism as the main factor in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s development. Analysis of the information got from the interviews. Review of literature about the chosen community and search for some statistical data to support the concepts used in research. Personal conclusions and suggestions concerning the effects of multilingualism on the Saudi Arabian children. Ethics The evaluation of social, ethical, and educational factors has to be made as well on the basis of the information about the communities and childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s roles within a society. Multilingualism is that kind of phenomenon that has its effects on different spheres of life, and the properly cho sen methods of research as well as the analysis of the information gathered should help to comprehend the peculiarities of the topic and its emergency in different spheres. When using humans as the main subjects of research, it is necessary to consider a number of ethical concerns and compliance. People, who agree to participate in any kind of investigation have to be ensured with a number of things like a possibility to change information or hide it because of some personal reasons, a choice not to make the results of research available to a wide range of public, a chance to stay anonymous, and an ability to use the most appropriate method of communication. A researcher should always remember about the following ethical principles that can never be neglected in the chosen work (Resnik, 2011): Honesty (the research results cannot be falsified); Objectivity (any kind of biases should be avoided in the methods, research, and analysis); Confidentiality (parents and children should be provided with the guarantees that their answers will not influence their ordinary lives); Respect (the researcher should demonstrate a respectful treatment to each participant of the investigation). The ethics of research presupposes the idea of using credible information about the participants and communities used in the project. This is why it is necessary to find a theoretical proof for each idea used as evidence. Children of Saudi Arabia have a number of rights, still, not all of them know about these rights, and they face numerous challenges when they try to understand what goes wrong in their lives (Ramel, 2011). This fact proves again that ethics is a crucial point in a human life and cannot be neglected to demonstrate how humane and supportive people have to be and how they actually are. The study under consideration is a good chance to recognise how crucial children development is and how important such factors like multilingualism and social support can be. It is also nec essary to admit that multilingualism may influence childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s emotions (Pavlenko, 2007), learning possibilities (Kirsch, 2006), and social relations (Lanza Svendsen, 2007). That is another important explanation of why such point like research ethics cannot be neglected. People should know how to cope with the challenges of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s language development in a multilingual society, and this project should not become a failure. Timeline Time is an important issue for any kind of research. To prove the correctness of the chosen research and the abilities to meet all its aims and follow all the methods identified, it is crucial to create a successful timeline and be able to use it accordingly. The following description of steps is a plan to be considered in research that discloses the effects of multilingualism on the Saudi Arabian children, their language development, and behaviour in a society. In general, a three-month timeframe must be used in research: one month is n ecessary to gather information and conduct interviews with the participants, one month is for the analysis of the information and its integration with the HymesÃ¢â¬â¢ theory of ethnography of communication, and the last month is for the writing and editing processes that have to be properly organised in accordance with the instructions set. 1st week Ã¢â¬â the identification of the goals and steps to be taken while the investigation and agreements about the further interviews; 2nd week Ã¢â¬â interviews and observations of the children from the Saudi Arabian community in the USA; 3rd week Ã¢â¬â interviews with the representatives of the Saudi Arabian community, who live in their native country; 4th week Ã¢â¬â additional adjustments of the interviews and the information gathered; 5th week Ã¢â¬â the analysis of the first portion of the interviews and its application to the theory chosen; 6th week Ã¢â¬â the analysis of the second portion of the interviews and its appl ication to the theory chosen; 7th week Ã¢â¬â the analysis of the observations; 8th week Ã¢â¬â the literature analysis; 9th week Ã¢â¬â outlining and discussions of the writing process; 10th week Ã¢â¬â writing; 11th week Ã¢â¬â writing; 12th week Ã¢â¬â editing and proofreading. This approximate timeline may be improved in accordance with the demands and tutorÃ¢â¬â¢s suggestions. Potential Educational Implications In fact, the project dedicated to the effects of multilingualism on the Saudi Arabian children, their behaviour, and language development on the basis of the HymesÃ¢â¬â¢ theory of ethnography of speaking may have a number of educational implications and important lessons for the participants as well as for the readers. The study helps to find a practical application of the HymesÃ¢â¬â¢ theory and its importance in the educational process. The participants learn the challenges of multilingualism for the children, who live or used to live in Saudi Arabia a nd find out the solutions that can be offered to improve childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s language development and behaviour. The study is a good chance to evaluate the already offered investigations and ideas, compare them, and realise why some of them are not appropriate for the modern society and some of them remain to be a considerable contribution to the science. People want to learn more about the methods that can help children achieve better results in their development; this is why the chosen research should be interesting and helpful for many communities because the Saudi Arabian community may be regarded as a variable that can be replaced and lead to some new ideas and suggestions. In general, the research proposal shows the aims and methods of research that have to be developed in a three-month period and discusses how and why the Saudi Arabian community is chosen for consideration and analysis of the effects of multilingualism on children. Reference List Al Haq, F., Oqlah, S. (1996). Spread of English and westernisation in Saudi Arabia. World Englishes, 15(3), 307-317. Al-Amri, M.N. (2013). Effects of bilingualism on personality, cognitive and educational developments: A historical perspective. Retrieved from http://www.westeastinstitute.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/ANT13-271-Majid-N.pdf Al-Ghamdi, N.S. (2015). Saudi scholarsÃ¢â¬â¢ heritage language and their ethno-cultural identity in multilingual communities: An exploratory case study. Cross-Cultural Communication, 11(1), 1-8. Atkinson, P., Delamont, S., Coffey, A., Lofland, J., Lofland, L. (2007). Handbook of ethnography. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. Bialystok, E. (2007). Language acquisition and bilingualism: Consequences for a multilingual society. Applied Psycholinguistics, 28(3), 393-397. Blommaert, J. (2009). Ethnography and democracy: HymesÃ¢â¬â¢s political theory of language. Text Talk, 29(3), 257-276. Blommaert, J., Collins, J., Slembrouck, S. (2005). Spaces of multilingualism. Language Communic ation, 25, 197-216. Dell HymesÃ¢â¬â¢s speaking model. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www1.appstate.edu/~mcgowant/hymes.htm Dewaele, J.M., Oudenhoven, J.P. (2009). The effect of multilingualism/multiculturalism on personality: No gain without pain for third culture kinds? International Journal of Multilingualism, 6(4), 443-459. Diamond, J. (2010). The benefits of multilingualism. Social Science Perspectives. Retrieved from http://www.uco.es/poling/multilingualism_plan/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Science-Bilingualism-Oct-141.pdf DÃ ¶pke, S. (2006). Understanding bilingualism and language disorder. Retrieved from http://www.bilingualoptions.com.au/consTXTDelay.pdf Gardner, S., Martin-Jones, M. (2012). Multilingualism, discourse, and ethnography. New York, NY: Routledge. Grosjean, F. (2010). Bilingual: Life and reality. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Habtoor, H.A. (2012). Language maintenance and language shift among second generation Tigrinya-speaking Eritrean immigrants i n Saudi Arabia. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 2(5), 945-955. Hijazi, N., Abalkhail, B., Seaton, A. (2000). Diet and childhood asthma in a society in transition: A study in urban and rural Saudi Arabia. Thorax, 55, 775-779. Hymes, D. (2013). Foundations in sociolinguistics: An ethnographic approach. New York, NY: Routledge. Johnstone, B., Marcellino, W. (2010). Dell Hymes and the ethnography of communication. In B. Johnstone, R. Wodak, P. Kerswill (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of sociolinguistics (pp. 57-66). London: Sage Publications. Kallet, R.H. (2004). How to write the methods section of a research paper. Respiratory Care, 49(10), 1229-1232. Kiesling, S. F. (2012). Ethnography of speaking. In C.B. Paulston, S.F. KIesling, E.S. Rangel (Eds.), The handbook of intercultural discourse and communication (pp. 77-89). Malden, MA: John Wiley Sons Ltd. Kirsch, C. (2006). Young children learning languages in a multilingual context. International Journal of Multilingualism, 3(4) , 258-279. Lanza, E., Svendsen, B.A. (2007). Tell me who your friends are and I might be able to tell you what language(s) you speak: Social network analysis, multilingualism, and identity. International Journal of Bilingualism, 11(3), 275-300. Luke, A. (2003). Literacy and the other: A sociological approach to literacy research and policy in multilingual societies. Reading Research Quarterly, 38(1), 132-141. Milburn, T. (n.d.). Applying S.P.E.A.K.I.N.G. Ethnography of Speaking. Retrieved from http://www.cios.org/encyclopedia/ethnography/5applying_speaking.htm Milburn, T. (n.d.). Theoretical overview. Ethnography of Speaking. Retrieved from http://www.cios.org/encyclopedia/ethnography/3theoretical_background.htm Mouzan, M.I., Salloum, A.A., Herbish, A.S., Qurachi, M.M., Omar, A.A. (2008). Consanguinity and major genetic disorders in Saudi children: A community-based cross-sectional study. Annual of Saudi Medicine, 228, 69-73. Pavlenko, A. (2007). Emotions and multilingualism. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Ramel, A. (2011). Children of Saudi Arabia. Humanium: Help the Children. Retrieved from http://www.humanium.org/en/saudi-arabia/ Resnik, D.B. (2011). What is ethics in research and why is its important? National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Retrieved from http://www.niehs.nih.gov/research/resources/bioethics/whatis/ Saudi Arabia has tenth lowest poverty rate worldwide, says World Bank. (2013). Al Arabiya News. Retrieved from http://english.alarabiya.net/en/business/economy/2013/11/03/Kingdom-has-tenth-lowest-poverty-rate-worldwide-says-World-Bank.html Saville-Troike, M. (2008). The ethnography of communication: An introduction. Malden, MA: John Willey Sons. This proposal on Effects of Multilingualism on Saudi Arabian Children was written and submitted by user JoantheMouse to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Sunday, March 8, 2020
buy custom Health Administrators Role in Healthcare Tort Reform essay Abstract The Obama healthcare plan is expected to occasion far-reaching effects on healthcare practice in the United States. Tort reform within the American healthcare context is perceived as the important missing link to a sound healthcare system that would replace the current order, which is deemed expensive due to the high incidence of litigation-based challenges. Health administrators have different approaches by which they could adjust the envisioned structure particularly with regard to reforms in the medical tort system. This study explores the different opinions and suggestions that have been projected towards the role of health administrators in healthcare Tort Reform. Generally, the suggestions extracted out of the different perspectives are centered on two factors. One is the retention and reinvention of the element of defensive medicine within the framework of reform. The second is the creation of structural systems that would necessitate a review of the tort system in a manner th at would be consistent of the new healthcare operational climate. Changing operational environment The operational environment of health care management in the United States is set to undergo significant changes following the advent of reforms occasioned by Obamas health care plan. The system of medical administration before the Obama bill was perceived to be socially biased against the poor and the unemployed. From the perspective of medics, the structural design of the system was or is fraught with litigation challenges that slow down levels of efficiency in health care administration. Studies have indicated that the insurance dynamics under the old system were largely conditioned by the economic pressures on the market, (Studdert, Mello, Brennan, 2004). The flux nature of the American economic environment often meant that insurance policies would increase at unpredictable levels that in turn brought about significant financial challenges for companies, individuals, and medical administrators. There have been arguments that the new dispensation would go alongside tort reforms given the centrality of litigations as a factor that allegedly drives up the cost of medication. The bigger picture of this operational paradigm was that medical administrations were largely determined by forces beyond the needs of the patients and the professionalism of service providers (Rubin, Joanna, 2007). The envisioned plan, which is supposed to roll out in the next ten years, aims at providing insurance cover for 32 million more Americans who were previously uninsured. Another factor that might determine the effect of this bill on medical administration is that 16 million more Americans will be placed under the government sponsored Medicaid insurance pr ogram (Clinton Obama, 2006). A wide range of scholarly concerns has been brought to bear on the exact dimension of the health care plan on the usual element of litigation in the American health systems. In the old order of medical administration, studies have offered that medical administrators tended to spend significant money and resources in fending off torts occasioned by technical mishaps that were clustered under the concept of professional malpractice (Donald, 2005). Two different opinions have been offered on the future scenario in the field with regard to the element of litigation. The first school of thought suggested by some studies argues that there is a possibility of increased volume of litigations logically drawing from the significantly increased level of clientele. The second school of thought argued that the current levels of litigations would experience marked decrease because the health reforms will abolish the limits under which the medical administrators have strained to operate. This second opinion is largely derived from the fact that the current challenges facing the American health care system is a result of the structural deficits that impede the potential of medical administrators in their effort to provide quality and affordable health care. Litigation has become a central factor in the United States medical system in the sense that it is one of the major factors that doctors look for in the designing of their methodologies (Arlen MacLeod, 2005). The need for new litigation structures There have projections that part of the implementation of these health care reforms will bring into effect the need for the restructuring of the landscape of the legal frameworks that have supported the current levels of litigations within the sector, (Arlen Macleod, 2005). Within the concept of this second consideration, it is expected that there shall be more money to undertake research in the medical field as focus significantly shift from litigation expenses to the provision of quality services. The old order has been that more money, which should have been expended on the pursuit of quality research, was mostly utilized in litigation matters (Jonathan, 2000).Besides, the government under the new plan has projected to undertake increased spending on research and incentives for the medics. This would, in the long run, guarantee quality healthcare to the American public and consequently lower the factor of litigation. The provision of inappropriate medical care under the structures of defensive medicine has been encouraged by the increased dependency on structures outside the medical fraternity to provide medical care for the majority of Americans, (Dubay, Kaestne, Waidmann, 2001). Redeeming the American health care system from the vicissitudes of the economy and litigations will herald a new climate under which medical firms will have the effect of stabilizing the environment in a manner conducive for the provision of professional services to a greater number of Americans. The bill, according to some studies was premised on the ideal of social justice for Americans regardless of their social and economic backgrounds. A broader assessment of these changes is to be observed from the heightened levels of medication that will necessarily follow the successful implementation of this plan. Precisely, there has been continuing debate regarding the possible methodologies that medical practitioners may a dopt for the purposes of shielding themselves from all possible litigations. The envisioned changes in the insurance fraternity are aimed at overhauling the pyramid of service that has traditionally concentrated its focus in limited segments that have been determined by the health status of the clients and their financial stability (Zuckerman, Bovbjerg, Sloan, 1990). This overhaul of the insurance fraternity must ultimately touch off a series of structural adjustment policies in medical administration in order to adjust in the redesigned operational environments. Targeted segments for reform Some of the areas that are likely to be affected include costs of medication, quality of medication, preventive and curative medical services. According to some studies, medical practitioners will approach their services and duties with an aspect of confidence than in past cases in which the clients insurance status was the sole determinant of the kind of treatment that patients would obtain from medics. The overarching goal of the Obama health plan is to put every American under the insurance umbrella. The second goal is to broaden the kind of policies offered by Insurance companies so that there is a wider choice from which the citizenry might choose from, depending on their respective health needs. This will make it possible for the medical administration to adopt policies that are precisely need-oriented rather than cost oriented like it has been practiced in the past (Currie, MacLeod, 2008). Consequently, a need-oriented approach to medical administration will yield more positive impacts on the nationwidehealth status than the prevailing system that locks out needy cases on reasons of costs. It might be argued, as a consequence, that the various kinds of administration approaches would have the overall effect of improving the quality of medical services in the American system. Litigants will seek to ascertain the professional quality of the services they receive so that they seek redress at the most appropriate levels. The Obama plan has expanded the field of engagement between insurance companies and the medical field in a manner that will increase the possibilities of policies for subscription by the American citizens. On the positive side, some scholars have argued that there will be an increased element of honesty as compared to the old system of insurance. This argument is predicated on the fact that doctors in the United States have tended to work within the scope of the insurance policies. The services rendered to patients have, in most cases been tailored in a way that reflects the specifics of the policies subscribed to by the patient. This old trend has often meant that doctors have been hesitant to prescribe or administer tests and treatment that are not within the confines of the policy (Sloan, Shadle, 2009). It is for these reasons that surveys have ascribed the increased rates of professional misconduct among medical practitioners. For instance, there have been reports of medics who prescribed cancer scans for the simple reasons that insurance firms would readily accept them conducted on their patients. The medical operational environment has, therefore, reflected strong symptoms of deterministic methodologies in which the field is defined by the insurance landscape. Researchers have illustrated that levels of efficiency in medical administrative are more positive in fields where the needs for medical care by the administrators determine the kind of insurance s chemes and policies, rather than the other way round as it has often happened in the United States, (Studdert, Yang, Mello, 2004). Scholarly observations that have been projected towards the future scenario for medical practitioners point to the general assessment that the free market systems of medical administration will eventually be replaced by a public funded systems that carry significantly higher safeguards for the health of Americans that in the old order. Surveys in heath care administration have suggested that public funded systems and government regulated medical care systems are relatively more efficient and safer that those largely controlled by the free market dynamics. From this perspective, it has been observed that new health care administration is more human centered that the kind of health care administration that currently exists on the market. The Obama Health Care plan is largely aimed towards the objective of increasing the pool of Americans under insurance. Precisely the plan intends to put all American citizens under the insurance schemes. These health care reforms will provide sufficient safeguards for more Americans to receive higher quality services while enjoying the financial cushioning from a consolidated fund of upfront insurance. Some of the dimensions on which these reforms have been anchored have had to do with the previous challenges that have dominated the US health care administration systems. Studies have shown that the previous systems were increasingly marred by defensive medicine, higher mortality rates, and low incentives for the medical practitioners (Studdert, Yang, Mello, 2004). The systems projected under the new design are largely anchored on the need for a increasing the level of administration of health care administration of Americans regardless of their financial status and the state of their health. There has been a strong element in the insurance regime of the United States where the providers largely sought to move into perceived safer regions. The system was such that the beneficiaries of the health care systems were largely those in the higher brackets of income. Others more targeted were those whose status of health was generally stable and sound. The insurance firms had manifested a marked trend of minimizing the sale of their policies from the perceived high risk sectors of the population such that those who were not permanently employed and those who suffered from chronic of life threatening health complications. On the other hand, studies have found out that these two categories were the ones increasingly under the threat of poor health care services. This is because they were more prone to health challenges that those in the high income status or those with stable status of heath (Danzon, 1984).The heath care program was therefore designed in a manner that would capture these two largely ignored areas of the population. The implication of this is that a new operational environment has emerged in which the health car e practitioners will have to adjust their trends and approaches in the administration of healthy care for these new categories of Americans. Taken together these changes are also expected to bring about far-reaching implications on the status of medical torts that would be experienced. The reason behind a possible change of scenario is the increasing possibility of that more Americans will have sufficient room to seek legal redress in cases where they will fell that their medical rights have been flouted (Arlen, MacLeod, 2005). Logically, an expanded catchment area for the healthcare practitioners will also mean an expanded rate of legal challenges in the field of health care administration. The increased percentage of lawsuits is expected to bring about higher cost implications on the part of health car organizations in a manner that might determine their levels of sustainability, profitability, and proficiency. Studies have observed that the Obama bill is more focused on the welfare of the citizenry at the expense of the health care organizations. In fact most of the criticism that have been brought to bare on the heal th care plan have been centered on the fact that the new systems does not provide the necessary impetus for the health care practitioners to seek new ways or reaching out to the American people. The incentives provided for the medical practitioners, according to these analysts are piecemeal and not sufficient to guarantee increased investment into the sector. In essence, medical administrators will seek out new ways to cushion themselves from the possible adverse effects of the new health care regime. Most of the changes to be expected are likely to emanate from the dimension of costs. The sector will undergo significant changes in a way that would be informed by internal structural adjustment mechanisms for the sake of self-protection (Clinton, Obama, 2006). In essence, the same studies have predicted that medical practitioners will adopt new operational mechanisms that will be aimed towards minimizing the possibilities of torts within their systems. The Obama plan has increased the incentives for the insurance firms to venture into an expanded arena of operation with the express intention of capturing the diverse sectors that were previously ignored in the old system of health care administration. In this respect, there will be increased policies to guard a higher number of Americans against medical malpractice. The structures that support the new design are made in such a way that they lower the threshold of medical malpractice. Studies have shown that the level of torts to be instituted against the medical practitioners will witness a sharp rise owing from the various incentives, (Currie, MacLeod, 2008). Health care administrators will have to adopt new ways in which they will seek to upset the existing challenges by way of minimizing the specter of litigations. The expected scenario is one in which there will be more focus on areas that are relatively less prone to litigation risks in the field of health care administration. In this regard, more American medical health administrators are likely to adopt specific strategies that would shield them from the possibilities of attracting lawsuits. Defensive medicine is one of the strategies that have been used occasionally by medical practitioner to shield themselves from the possibilities of torts,(Currie, MacLeod, 2008). The trend has been an increased use of resources in a disproportionate manner to response to medical cases that would have been sufficiently handled through the utilization of lesser resources. In effect, such tendencies have been responsible for the perceived in-equilibrium in the balance of resources against the social factor in the provision of the medical administration in the United States. It is expected that there will be a likely surge in this areas given that the government will increase its budgetary allocations to shield the medical field in terms of resources. The scepter of defensive medicine is likely to shoot up in the emergent scenario because medical practitioners will endeavor by all convenient means possible to shield themselves from the possibilities of attracting lawsuits to themselves or their facilities. According to some studies, other responses that are likely to follow include increased levels of referrals for undeserving cases. Studies have indicated that medical private firms are likely to adopt more selective approaches through which they will avoid complicated cases that are deemed of higher risk. Health care administrators in the private field may tend to prefer to refer some cases to higher medical facilities particularly government sponsored ones in cases that they may perceive as potentially risky. This approach would reduce the element of r isk since they will have transferred the possibility of the risk to health facilities of higher jurisdiction. From yet another perspective, some studies have argued that medical practitioners are likely to design their services in such a way that they promote more preventive medicine than curative medicine. This, according to these studies, is likely to be a coordinated approach in the sense that insurance policies will equally promote preventive policies as a way of preempting the costs of medical care that might result from the likely increase in the number of applicants. (Currie, MacLeod, 2008). Studies have shown that the administration of preventive medicine is significantly cost-effective than curative health care. Similarly, preventive care is less likely to attract malpractice litigations than curative medical care. Medical administrators would therefore align their policies in favor of preventive policies as a long-term measure of safeguarding the systems against torts. The problem of staffing has also been a significant factor within the element of litigation. This challenge can b e perceived from the perspective that lack of sufficient qualified personnel throughout the United States has created a scenario where less qualified personnel have been charged with the provision of services (Dubay, Kaestne, Waidmann, 2001). The situation is likely to be worsened under the Obama plan because the available medical personnel may not easily accommodate the sudden upsurge of insured patients. The government plan to recruit more medical practitioners may not match the speed with which the new insured individuals will respond to their medical needs. The wider implication of this new structure would be the emergence of disequilibrium between the levels of individuals who require medical attention against the available number of trained medical personal to offer these services. The obvious short term and long-term interventionist measure would be to enlist the services of unqualified or less experienced medical practitioners to handle complicated cases that mat arise out of the scenario. The margin of error in medical malpractice Researchers have pointed out that this same level of disproportional has been to blame to the margins of error that have occurred within the old order. It is precisely these margins of error that result directly to increased levels of litigations. Critics have pointed out that the Obama plan may face implementation challenges because it lacks sufficient safeguards that would shield it against the challenges of implementation. The possibility of increased margin of error would cripple the systems, as the insurance firms for the medical administrators would not manage to handle the significantly higher costs to be involved in the litigations, (Studdert, Yang, Mello, 2004). In this case, the medical practitioners are likely to maintain their old tendency of spending more resources in shielding themselves from the possibility of lawsuits. To accommodate the pressure of work, the medics may equally revert to the old system of prescribing expensive medical treatment with the purpose of ra ising the threshold for litigation in any complicated cases that they face. This would mean that the system reverts to defensive medicine that has been blamed for the poor levels of service delivery in the US health care system. One other approach for medical administrators would be shifting towards areas that are deemed less risky (Zuckerman, Bovbjerg, Sloan, 1990). This is because of factors of discrepancies of remuneration and lack of back up insurance to cover them against torts. In this regard, there would result an imbalance of staffing in some critical areas that are deemed more risky. However, some scholars have argued that it is immaterial to bring on board the aspect of tort reform because it does not constitute a significant percentage of the costs of medical care in the United States. According to some studies, the actual statistics of torts are significantly lower than perceived impressions on the same. These studies have argued that the component of medical liability has remained constant even as the costs of medical care continue to move upwards. Alternative explanations have been sought to bear on the cost factors of healthcare. Some of the reasons of the rise in the cost of medical care have to do with technological factors and processes of social mobility (Studdert, Mello, Brennan, 2004). The first argument has been that the increasing technological sophistication in the field of medical practice has occasioned increased costs in terms of medical care. The technological devices that are enlisted into the field have a high operational and maintenance factor. The second reason that the United States being a rich nation will necessarily have higher costs of medical care than less stable countries. Studies have offered that the health care system of the United States is around 2 trillion dollars (Currie, MacLeod, 2008).On the other hand, the average tort claims per year are around 30 trillion dollars. This means that the percentage of the costs against the fiscal value of the system is around 1.5 percent. The impression created by this percentage is that the litigation factor in the US healthcare system is not significantly sufficient to determine the average costs of the system. Other studies have pointed out that the rate of litigations for professional misconduct has been on a downward trend from a variety of reasons (Arlen, MacLeod, 2005). One reason is that there increased defensive medicine has protected medical administrators from the possible adverse effects of these litigations. In conclusion, it would seem that a variety of dimensions is available for medical administrators to engage with the new health care dispensation brought about by the Obama health care plan. Medical administrators may choose to adopt methods that would increase the quality of services provided to the increased volume of insured beneficiaries. This could be achieved through the utilization of the financial incentives for the purposes of training and specialization in the areas perceived as prone to litigations. Another way is that medical administrators would maintain the old approach of defensive medicine, which of course would be cushioned within the increased levels of spending. Buy custom Health Administrators Role in Healthcare Tort Reform essay